It is mainly by way of continuous tests that Campagnolo's notoriously high quality standards are achieved in each of the company's departments. From the very start, during product design, thanks to the support of modern CAD and FEM systems, it is possible to obtain the most favourable cross dimensions for every single part. Highly sophisticated apparatus is at the technicians disposal for a steady analysis of raw materials and semi-manufactured products at delivery, in order to verify total correspondence to the standards called for by the design. Custom built Campagnolo machinery for testing performance and wear on front and rear derailleurs. Spectrophotometers, quantum detectors, three-dimensional display systems, just to mention some of the instruments most frequently used in the testing laboratory. The mentioned instruments are used in addition to other measuring and testing facilities developed directly by Campagnolo for customized product testing, according to a scheme of some of the toughest standards in the field, resulting from 64 years of applied manufacturing experience.